Cubical Quad Notes:
Volumes 1, 2 & 3

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Considered an expert on antennas, L. B. has published 30+ books, with works on antennas for both the beginner and the advanced student. Among his books are a basic tutorial in the use of NEC antenna modeling software and compilations of his many shorter pieces. His articles have appeared in virtually every amateur radio publication, with translations of some into several languages. Retired Professor from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, L.B. is Technical & Educational Advisor to the ARRL and Technical Editor for antenneX.

As stated by this popular antenna expert, Cubical Quad Antennas have languished in a limbo state between excellent user reports and a mixture of myth and fact about how they perform. This 3-volume series attempts to clarify some aspects of quad array performance and to codify some basic elements of quad design.

 

quad1_ad.jpg (18644 bytes)Cubical Quad Notes
Volume 1: A Review of Existing Designs

L.B. Cebik, W4RNL

antenneX Online Magazine proudly introduces its publication this book by L.B. Cebik.

This 3-volume series attempts to clarify some aspects of quad array performance and to codify some basic elements of quad design. Volume 1 begins with a necessary review of existing quad arrays, ranging from basic 2-element monoband beams to large multi-band designs.

Throughout, quads are analyzed using current method-of-moments computer techniques to determine their HF characteristics: the goal is to find the actual bandwidth of basic performance parameters, such as gain, front-to-back ratio, and feedpoint impedance. The analysis attempts to isolate basic properties that affect overall quad performance. As well, various common point and individual element feed systems are analyzed to show their effects on performance. Full dimensions appear for each quad design, along with antenna model descriptions for those wishing to extend the analysis.

Each chapter in this 220-page book is fully illustrated with sketches, graphs, and antenna patterns. There are 125 of these illustrations plus over 80 Tables about performance, dimensions, and parameters for modeling exercises. To see a Review of this book by Dan Handelsman, N2DT, click here.

Here is a list of the chapter titles found in this book:

Chapter

Title

1 Introduction 3
2 Full-Size 2- Element Quads 13
3 Variations and Comparisons Among 2-Element Quads 29
4 Shrunken 2-Element Quads 55
5 Multi-Band 2-Element Quad Beams 79
6 Alternative Common Feed Systems
for Multi-Band 2-Element Quad Beams
105
7 Stacking 2-Element, 5-Band Quads 119
8 Separately Feeding Multi-Band Quads 139
9 Monoband Quads of More Than 2 Elements 151
10 Special Notes on 3-Element Quads 175
11 Larger Multi-Band Quads 189
12 Where Do We Go From Here? 217

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quad2_ad.jpg (20638 bytes)Cubical Quad Notes
Volume 2: Rethinking the Quad Beam

L.B. Cebik, W4RNL

ere is our much-requested release of Volume 2 of this 3-book series by L.B. Cebik. The popular Volume 1 in reviewed existing quad designs and uncovered a number of factors that have not been fully appreciated. In this second volume, these factors lead to a rethinking of quad design and to some total redesign of monoband quad arrays.

Among the factors influencing the rethinking of quad design are these: the relative narrow-band properties of the quad, the critical dependence of quad design on the diameter of its elements, the requirement for more spacing between quad elements to achieve optimal coupling relative to linear elements, the need for elements as thick as those used in Yagis if that quad is to net its theoretical gain advantage over the Yagi, and the relatively rapid rate of change of reactance across the quad operating passband.

Volume 2 of this series results in computerized monoband quad design programs for 1 to 4 element arrays, as well as in a consideration of larger designs, narrow-band design, VHF designs, and factors influencing the elevation patterns of quads.

Volume 1 begins with a necessary review of existing quad arrays, ranging from basic 2-element monoband beams to large multi-band designs. Volume 2 picks up where Volume 1 leaves off and considers other ways to design the Quad and further optimize its potential. This 240-page second book volume is fully illustrated with over 200 sketches, graphs, modeling exercises, antenna patterns and some useful GW Basic utilities.

Here is a list of the chapter titles found in this book:

Chapter

Title

1 Introduction and Reference Data 3
2 Calculating the Length of a Resonant Square Quad Loop 15
3 2-Element Quads as a Function of Wire Diameter:
Understanding Some Quad Properties
35
4 2-Element Quads as a Function of Wire Diameter:
Automating the Design Process
49
5 2-Element Quads as a Function of Wire Diameter:
Fatter Elements from "Mere Wire"
63
6 Automating the Design of 3-Element Monoband Quad Beams:
A Wide-Band Model
83
7 Automating the Design of 3-Element Monoband Quad Beams:
A High-Gain Model
107
8 40-Meter Wide-Band 3-Element Quad Designs 123
9 4-Element Monoband Quad Design 141
10 Some Notes on Long-Boom Quads 159
11 A Place for Narrow-Band Quad Designs 179
12 Some Notes on Size and Height 193
13 Some Notes on VHF Quad Design 205
14 Quad Horizons 238-240

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Cubical Quad Notes
Volume 3: Multi-Band Quad Questions

L.B. Cebik, W4RNL

olume 3 of Cubical Quad Notes extends the work begun in the first two volumes. In Volume 1, Cebik reviewed extensively the design of cubical quad beams up to the time of writing (2000). Designs consisted of roughly 3 types: full size monoband 2-element quads, shrunken quads, and examples of monoband and multi-band quads with more than 2 elements. Volume 2 endeavored to re-think the quad beam, with special emphasis on monoband designs. To rectify performance deficiencies, the volume optimized the performance of monoband beams and committed the optimization to a series of computer design programs.

Volume 3 of the series explores a number of questions involved in the design of multi-band quad beams. Beginning with 2-element designs, Cebik analyzes element interaction in spider designs and then sorts those interactions from others that involve the use of a common feedpoint. The work involves the accumulation of significant quantities of data in order to develop reliable trends in quad performance. For example, 2-element quad beams are easiest to tame when the frequency ratio between bands is at least 1.3:1 or higher. Part 1 of the volume closes with notes that track the trends when quads attempt to join bands with smaller frequency ratios, such as any two upper HF amateur bands.

In Part 2, Cebik expands the work to include larger arrays, beginning with a tri-band 2-element quad. The analysis includes data reinforcing the decision to cover only 3 bands with the quad. The next chapter explores why we do not find many 3-element multi-band quads. The next chapter looks at 4 element quads using planar element structures in search of the optimal configuration, including the use of a phased dual-driver system. He compares the results with typical tri-band Yagi arrays using the same approximate boom length. In the final major chapter, Cebik goes through the process of designing a complex 5-band quad beam that uses between 4 and 6 elements, depending upon the band. As important as the design itself are the notes on using antenna-modeling software effectively in the design process and translating a computer design into a physical reality.

As Cebik notes in the final chapter, “Our understanding of quad beams has not ended. It has just begun.” Volume 3 of Cubical Quad Notes has 249 pages, with 140 illustrations and numerous data tables.

Here is a list of the chapter titles found in this book:

Chapter

Title

 

Sneaking Up on 2-Element Common-Feed Quads

 
1 Part 1: Monoband Quad Beams as a Starting Point 7
2 Part 2: Dual Band Quad Beams With Separate Feedpoints 29
3 Part 3: Dual Band Quad Beams With Common Feedpoints 57
4 Part 4: Adjacent-Band Quad Behavior 85
 

Multi-Element, Multi-Band Quads

 
5 A 3-Band, 2-Element Spider-Supported Quad Beam 113
6 Why Not Use a 3-Band, 3-Element Quad? 139
7 The Quest for the Elusive TBWB4EQ 157
8 Notes on Designing Large 5-Band Quads 203
9  What Have We Learned? 239-249
     

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ORDER ALL 3-Volumes at a discount!
We offer a special discount price for purchase of a set of the 3-Volume PDF versions on CD-ROM or Download. This is a savings of 20% off the normal purchase of each volume separately.

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