Antenna Modeling Notes

~ 7 Volumes ~
Vol. 7 is the Final Volume of this Series

2,514 Pages!!
Plus 330 Modeling Files (150 in .NEC/.EZ/.NWP Formats)
L. B. Cebik, W4RNL (SK)

Volume Pages Modeling Files

1

377 94
2 400 86
3 433 60
4 395 90
5 264 Program listings
6 323 Program listings
7 322 Program listings
  2,514  

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Considered an expert on antennas, LB has published 30+ books with works on antennas for both the beginner and the advanced student. Among his books are two tutorials in the use of NEC antenna modeling software and compilations of his many shorter pieces and some 800 modeling files, all of which are available here in the Shopping Shack. His articles have appeared in virtually every amateur radio publication, with translations of some into several languages. He is a retired Professor from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and holds a PhD in Philosophy. Until his death in April 2008, LB was Technical & Educational Advisor to the ARRL and for 10 years was Technical Editor for antenneX. His contribution of articles to antenneX first appeared in early 1997 and a new monthly column, Antenna Modeling, appeared starting in 1998. He is greatly missed, but antenneX is pleased to be able to bring more of LB's contributions to those who seek to learn about the field of antennas. He remains with us through his treasured writings.

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 1

amod1_ad.jpg (14813 bytes)amod1_e.jpg (1370 bytes)ffective basic instruction in the use of antenna modeling programs seem to call for more than just the entry-level manuals that accompanied modeling programs. Therefore, LB started writing on the subject of antenna modeling pretty much as he began to master the programs himself. In 1998, he began a series of monthly columns for antenneX, a series still active today. That series originated with information useful to beginning modelers, but has grown in recent times to address as well potentials, limitations, and techniques of interest to more advanced modelers. It also began by focusing upon MININEC and especially NEC-2, but has now expanded its scope to include NEC-4.
 
The time has come to collect these columns into a more convenient form for the reader. There is just too much material for a single volume, so Cebik has broken the collection into a series of books. He reviewed the text and graphics for each column to ensure as much accuracy as he could muster. LB has also reviewed the sample models used in each column. That process permitted him to add something to these volumes that is not available in antenneX or at his own web site. The Appendix to each of these volumes contains a collection of antenna modeling files in three formats: .NEC (ASCII), .EZ (EZNEC), and .NWP (NEC-Win Plus). LB also revised the text to include a file name for the applicable model in the Appendix. Therefore, should you wish to do so, you will be able to read a column in front of your computer and to test for yourself the ideas involved.
 
Volume 1 (with 377 pages) contains the first (updated) 25 columns in the series, along with 94 antenna models. The table of contents indicates the topics covered. Additional Volumes are now available too and described below along with their table of contents.

CENTER

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 2

amod2_t.jpg (1209 bytes)amod02_ad.jpg (14835 bytes)he second volume of Antenna Modeling Notes contains columns 26 through 50 of W4RNL's long-running monthly contribution to antenneX  (columns #1 through #25 appeared in Volume 1)  As part of his commitment to education in the art and science of antenna modeling for newer modelers, this collection of includes items of interest to both the beginning and the advanced modeler.   While the first 25 columns dealt with MININEC and NEC-2 topics, this volume introduces some of the features of NEC-4, which can now be licensed reasonably inexpensively to non-commercial users.  As well, the volume includes a 4-part tutorial on modeling by equation and another 2-part series on designing with modeling software.  You will find coverage of vertical antennas and their radial systems, information on polar and rectangular plots, and much more.

As in Volume 1, Cebik has added models to this volume, in fact, 86 of them.  These models are referred to in the text, and you can run them while reading to further illustrate the points under consideration.  Except for models that have no possible counterparts in other formats, each model comes in the EZNEC (.EZ), NEC-Win Plus (.NWP), and generic (.NEC) formats.  As well, Cebik has included his NEC-Win Plus models for designing Moxon Rectangles and monoband quad beams as a bonus.

Volume 2 contains 400+ pages of text, illustrated throughout with nearly 200 graphics and accompanied by the 86 antenna models.  See Volume 3 below.

 

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 3

amod2_t.jpg (1209 bytes)his third collection of antenna modeling notes continues the compilation of the series that LB began in 1998 in antenneX.  It contains 433 pages with episode numbers 51 through 75 of the long-running series that is running even today. The time had come to collect these columns into a more convenient form for the reader.  There is just too much material for a single volume, so LB has broken the collection into a series of books.  LB reviewed the text and graphics for each column to ensure as much accuracy as possible. The sample models used in each column have been reviewed and updates as well.  That process permitted LB to add things to these volumes not available before.

The Appendix to each of these volumes contains a collection of 60 more antenna modeling files in three formats: .NEC (ASCII), .EZ (EZNEC), and .NWP (NEC-Win Plus).  Therefore, should you wish to do so, you will be able to read an episode in front of your computer and to test for yourself the ideas involved. As with other volumes, this one is well-illustrated.

ad3.jpg (14835 bytes)This volume includes a potpourri of basic and advanced modeling techniques.  At the basic level, there is a collection of graphic charts enumerating many of the DOs and DON'Ts o NEC modeling so that you may extract and keep handy a series of reminders as you construct a model.  As well, LB has revisited a number of topics to expand the coverage and go a bit more deeply into detail.  The episodes on the Average Gain Test (AGT) and the overall contents of the NEC output file are examples.

Several columns devote themselves to comparisons between NEC and MININEC. There are types of models in which one or the other modeling core is superior, and the columns attempt to explore when you should use one or the other. The key limiting factors include both geometry and ground calculation concerns.  Although NEC cores are highly uniform in performance, MININEC cores have undergone extensive modification by software developers and are not equally capable over a variety of modeling tasks.

This volume also includes introductions to the use of some of the geometry and command inputs that are not available on most low-end commercial versions of NEC-2.  We examine the rudiments of the GC (Wire Segment Length and Radius Tapering), GH (Helix-Spiral Specification), GM (Coordinate Transformation), and GX (Symmetry) geometry input cards, as well as introduce the use of the commands related to the use of Numerical Green's Function files.  For some of these model inputs, there are differences between the required NEC-2 and NEC-4 entries, and we explore some of those differences.

In addition to mastering the various commands, potentials, and limitations of the basic modeling cores, there are a number of fundamental modeling tips and techniques that can be useful in the construction of ever better models.  Episodes appear in this series in response, normally, to questions of the author.

In this volume, we look at the simulation of circular loops by using the required NEC straight wires.  Also included is a discussion of using parallel sources in place of complex geometries when two or more wires come together to form a single source wire or segment.  A perennial question is how to incorporate into a model frequency-nimble complex impedance matching sections that physically apply directly to the source of an antenna: we look at a usable but not universal technique.  We also explore a small bit of the territory called wire-gridding, the use of wire-grid structures to simulate both simple and complex conductive surfaces.

See Volume 4 now available.

 

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 4

wpe9.jpg (11769 bytes)amod2_t.jpg (1209 bytes)his fourth volume of Antenna Modeling Notes contains columns 76 through 100 of W4RNL's long-running monthly contribution to antenneX. (Columns #1 through #25 appeared in Volume 1, columns 26 through 50 appeared in Volume 2, and columns 51 through 75 appeared in Volume 3.) The latest volume includes information for both beginning and more advanced modelers.

As in Volumes 1 through 3, Cebik has added models to this volume, in fact, over 90 of them. These models are referred to in the text, and you can run them while reading to further illustrate the points under consideration. Except for models that have no possible counterparts in other formats, each model comes in the EZNEC (.EZ), NEC-Win Plus (.NWP), and generic (.NEC) formats.

Volume 4 contains 395 pages of text, illustrated throughout with nearly 200 graphics and accompanied by the antenna models.

See Volume 5 next now released.

 

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 5

amod2_t.jpg (1209 bytes)his collection of antenna modeling notes continues the compilation of the series that I began in 1998 in antenneX. It contains numbers 101 through 117 of the long-running series that continues even today. The time came to collect these columns into a more convenient form for the reader. There is just too much material for a single volume, so the collection is broken into numerous units. I have reviewed the text and graphics for each column to ensure as much accuracy as I can muster. I have also reviewed the sample models used in each column. That process permitted me to add something to these volumes that is not available anywhere else. Some models require elements of the command set not included in entry-level programs such as EZNEC. Others require NEC-4

Along the way, we shall explore some basic NEC calculations, including electric fields at a distance. We shall also learn how to supplement NEC calculations by using its output data to arrive at circular gain. Finally, we shall explore the relationship between the EX command and the PT command for special receiving-mode models. The NEC-2 and NEC-4 manuals provide fundamental collections of sample models designed to illustrate in the most compact way possible as many NEC features as possible. These models appear only in print form. In this volume, there are many program listings with the various command sets and input parameters.

The adequacy of models is, as it should be, a continuing challenge. Therefore, we shall revisit the convergence test with particular reference to its use with NEC. In addition, we shall take a look at some of the correctives that we use to work around some of the core's limitations. However, finding limitations and faults is not our goal. Rather, the goal is to make effective use of the program. Toward that end, we shall look at a techniques that will let us in NEC-2 handle insulated wires in a way that is comparable to the IS command in NEC-4. We shall also examine the various ground calculation systems that appear in NEC (and MININEC) software.

This Volume 5 contains 264 pages with illustrations, program listings and performance charts.

Antenna Modeling Notes: Volume 6

amod2_t.jpg (1209 bytes)his collection of antenna modeling notes, containing 323 pages, continues the compilation of the series that I began in 1998 in antenneX. It contains numbers 118 through 132 of the long-running series that continues even today. The time came to collect these columns into a more convenient form for the reader. There is just too much material for a single volume, so the collection is broken into numerous units. I have reviewed the text and graphics for each column to ensure as much accuracy as I can muster. I have also reviewed the sample models used in each column. That process permitted me to add something to these volumes that is not available anywhere else. Some models require elements of the command set not included in entry-level programs such as EZNEC. Others require NEC-4.

The adequacy of models is, as it should be, a continuing challenge. Therefore, we shall revisit the convergence test with particular reference to its use with NEC. In addition, we shall take a look at some of the correctives that we use to work around some of the core's limitations. However, finding limitations and faults is not our goal. Rather, the goal is to make effective use of the program. Toward that end, we shall look at a techniques that will let us in NEC-2 handle insulated wires in a way that is comparable to the IS command in NEC-4. We shall also examine the various ground calculation systems that appear in NEC (and MININEC) software.

Volume 6 contains 323 pages with illustrations, program listings and performance charts.

Volume 7
Final Volume of this Series

his collection of antenna modeling notes, containing 322 pages, continues the compilation of the series that I began in 1998 in antenneX. It contains numbers 133 through 147 of the long-running series of 12.25 years, and now comes to an end.

We collect these columns into a more convenient form for the reader. There is just too much material for a single volume, so the collection is broken into numerous units. Before his death, LB reviewed the text and graphics for each column to ensure as much accuracy as could be mustered. He also reviewed the sample models used in each column. That process permitted LB to add something to these volumes that is not available anywhere else. Some models require elements of the command set not included in entry-level programs such as EZNEC. Others require NEC-4.

The adequacy of models is, as it should be, a continuing challenge. Therefore, we shall revisit the convergence test with particular reference to its use with NEC. In addition, we shall take a look at some of the correctives that we use to work around some of the core's limitations. However, finding limitations and faults is not our goal. Rather, the goal is to make effective use of the program. Toward that end, we shall look at a techniques that will let us in NEC-2 handle insulated wires in a way that is comparable to the IS command in NEC-4. We shall also examine the various ground calculation systems that appear in NEC (and MININEC) software.

This final Volume 7 contains 322 pages with illustrations, program listings and performance charts. Sadly, there will never be another volume!


Index of the titles found in Volume 1

Column

Title

Page

1 Converging Toward Excellence 9
2 Under the Limits: MININEC (3.13) 23
3 Within the Lines: NEC-2 36
4 A Good Start is Half the Trip 50
5 Putting Sources Where You Can Find Them 63
6 Modeling Loads: What Kind, How Much, and Where? 74
7 Maximizing Your Data 88
8 Modeling Wire Arrays 106
9 Modeling Ground Planes 120
10 Tapering to Perfection 134
11 A Ground is Just a Ground—Unless it is a Model of a Ground 147
12 Verticals At and Over Ground 161
13 Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models
     A. Some Center Loading Basics
179
14 Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models
     B. Some Mid-Element Loading Basics
195
15 Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models
     C. Some Linear Loading Basics
213
16 Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models
     D. Some Solenoid Loading Basics
237
17 Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models
     E. Some Unfinished Business on Modeling Loads
255
18 Why Tri-Banders Are Hard to Model 269
19 What Can We Learn From Tables? 281
20 The Average Gain Test 296
21 The NEC TL Facility 308
22 Modeling Physical Transmission Lines 320
23 Modeling LPDAs 338
24 The Power and the Source 350
25 Bringing Up the Rear: Front-to-Back Ratios 362
*** Appendix: Antenna Models 375
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 2

Column

Title

Page

26 The Scales of Equivalence 9
27 Modeling by Equations: A. A Beginning 21
28 Modeling by Equations: B. Bigger and Better Things 36
29 Modeling by Equations: C. Formulas and Blocks 57
30 Modeling by Equations: D. Scratch Pads & Coordinates 79
31 A Case Study: A 90' Wire 95
32 A Case Study: Rotating a Beam 109
33 A Clean Sweep 125
34 The Second Ground Medium 141
35 Notes on Using AZ-EL Plots Effectively 161
36 Getting a Grip on AZ/EL and Phi/Theta 179
37 Verticals: Using the MININEC Ground 199
38 Radials: Segmentation and Convergence 216
39 Radials: Complex Radial Systems 230
40 Resolution 244
41 Multiple-Feedpoint Loop Modeling 262
42 Moving and Rotating 276
43 Modeling Element Substitutes 292
44 Designing With NEC: A Case Study Part 1: The 4Ss 308
45 Designing With NEC: A Case Study Part 2: Evaluation & Reality 323
46 A Load in Parallel With a Source 337
47 So You Want to Read a NEC-Deck 351
48 Radiation Plots: Polar or Rectangle; Log or Linear 366
49 Traps 380
50 The NEC-4 IS Card: Insulated Wires 391
*** Appendix: Antenna Models 406
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 3

Column

Title

Page

51 Testing the Fringes of Modeling Programs 9
52 Flipping Among NEC Programs 24
53 Voltage and Current Sources: How? 44
54 GC: Wire Segment Length and Radius Tapering 58
55 Parallel Sources, Angular Junctions & Avg Gain: Correcting Weaknesses 72
56 When is MININEC Superior to NEC? 92
57 Some Comments on Comments 107
58 Some Basic Guideline Graphics for NEC 120
59 MININEC and NEC: A Design Case Study 135
60 NVIS Antenna Models and the Ground Type 154
61 GM: Coordinate Transformation 176
62 GH: Helix-Spiral Specification 204
63 GH and GM: The NEC-4 Versions 226
64 An Orientation to the NEC Output Files 246
65 The 1/2-Wavelength Resonant Dipole as a Core Test Instrument 265
66 The State of the Art? 282
67 Wire Grids 1: Plane and Simple 294
68 Wire Grids 2: Angular and Awkward 310
69 4-8-16-Infinite Sided Loops 325
70 Refining Physical Transmission-Line Models 341
71 The Average Gain Test Revisited 357
72 The GX or Symmetry Geometry Input 368
73 Source-to-Feedline Matching Techniques 386
74 Some Numerical Green's Function Rudiments 400
75 NEC: Power Efficiency vs. Radiation Efficiency 416
*** Appendix: Antenna Models 431
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 4

Column

Title

Page

76 Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
1A: Horizontal Wires in the Lower to Medium HF Range
9
77 Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
1B: Horizontal Wires in the Lower to Medium HF Range
23
78 Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2A: Vertical Dipoles
40
79 Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2B: Vertical Monopoles
63
80 Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2C: Vertical Monopoles
82
81 Appreciating the EK Command 100
82 The Nature and Adequacy of NEC Correctives 113
83 Insulated Wires: The NEC-2 Way 124
84 GA: Creating and Moving Arcs 142
85 Electrical Fields at a Power Level and Distance 161
86 NEC-2 Manual Sample Files 176
87 NEC-4 Manual Sample Files 189
88 EX and PT Commands 206
89 Archimedes & Log Spirals for the NEC-4 GH Command 220
90 An Orientation to NEC Near Fields
Part 1. NEC-2 Input Basics & Simple Outputs
232
91 An Orientation to NEC Near Fields Part 2. Some Refinements
and NEC-4 Additions
250
92 Calculating Circular Gain 263
93 Convergence Revisited 274
94 GR: The “Generate Cylindrical Structure” Command 286
95 Some Basics of the NT Command 298
96 Some Further Applications of the NT Command 314
97 Integrating Commands: A Case Study 332
98 Planar Reflectors: Wire Grid vs. SM Patches 346
99 S-N, RCA, and MININEC Grounds 362
100 The Dipole and the Coax 377
*** Appendix: Antenna Models 393
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 5

Column

Title

Page

101 Modeling the Un-Modelable 7
102 True Azimuth Models – NSI Software 22
103 True Azimuth Models – EZNEC Software 36
104 PS: I Change 50
105 Models, Symmetry and Loads: A Couple of Reminders 62
106 Refining Our Notions of Azimuth Patterns 79
107 Scaling Models 91
108 Dipoles: Variety & Modeling Hazards Linear, V & Folded Dipoles in NEC 104
109 Dipoles: Variety & Modeling Hazards Linear, V & Folded Dipoles in
MININEC
117
110 Dipoles: Variety & Modeling Hazards Tapered-Diameter, Bent and
Hatted Dipoles
132
111 Dipoles: Variety & Modeling Hazards Zigzag, Fold-Back and Fan
Dipoles
148
112 Wires Meeting Ground: 2 Cases 165
113 When Simple Geometries Become Complex: A Rhombic Study 182
114 Modeling Folded Monopoles 201
115 Single, Bifilar and Quadrifilar Helices 221
116 Insulation Revisited 240
117 Modeling and the Logic of Question Resolution 252
  Other Publications 264
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 6

Column

Title

Page

118 Modeling Odd Structures: the Gamma Match I 7
119 Modeling Odd Structures: the Gamma Match II 24
120 Back on the Ground 43
121 Radiation Patterns and Propagation 60
122 Reciprocity: Home on the Range 80
123 Radiating and Transmission-Line Currents 109
124 Modeling (with) Parabolic Reflectors 135
125 When to Worry and When to Not: a Case Study 155
126 "Ideal" Polar Plots 171
127 A Potpourri of Modeler Miscellanea 193
128 When Not to Use NEC for Antenna Modeling 216
129 Some Rudiments of Receiving Pattern Modeling 234
130 Models vs. Prototypes 256
131 AM BC Modeling with NEC I 278
132 AM BC Modeling with NEC II 298
  Other Publications 323
     

Index of the titles found in Volume 7

Column

Title

Page

133 AM BC Modeling with NEC III 7
134 AM BC Modeling with NEC IV 25
135 AM BC Modeling with NEC V 41
136 AM BC Modeling with NEC VI 70
137 NEC Implementations, Cores, Limits and Work-Arounds 87
138 Types of Substitute Models 103
139 Antenna Matching with EZNEC Version 5: Part 1 125
140 Antenna Matching with EZNEC Version 5: Part 2 148
141 Circular R-X Graphs 171
142 VOACAP Type 13 Files 193
143 Modeling Radiating Surfaces 217
144 Receiving Directivity 243
145 Serial Feedline Connections 259
146 Unequal Serial Feedline Connections 281
147 Warnings and Errors of NEC & What to Do 302
  Other Publications 322
     
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